In addition, Article II(2) and (3) deals with the issue of official appointments. With respect to diplomatic officials, judges and other officers of the United States, article II sets out four modes of appointment. The default option allows for appointment after appointment by the Speaker and „deliberation and approval” of the Senate. With respect to „officers of poor quality,” Congress may, at its discretion, entrust its appointment „to the president, courts, or department heads only.” The Supreme Court has not drawn a clear line for designating low-quality officers who could be appointed to the executive branch and low-quality officials that Congress can authorize the courts, provided there is no „incongruity” between the functions normally performed by the courts and the fulfillment of their duty of appointment. Morrison v. Olson (1988).